Judge Rüdiger Wolfrum

Member of the Tribunal since 1 October 1996; re-elected as from 1 October 1999 and 1 October 2008; Vice-President of the Tribunal 1996-1999; President of the Chamber for Marine Environment Disputes 1997-1999; President of the Tribunal 2005-2008; Member of the Special Chamber formed to deal with the Case concerning the Conservation and Sustainable Exploitation of Swordfish Stocks in the South-Eastern Pacific Ocean 2000-2009; Member of the Special Chamber formed to deal with the Dispute Concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary between Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire in the Atlantic Ocean (Ghana/Côte d'Ivoire)

Born: Berlin, Germany, 13 December 1941. 

Education: First State Examination (1969); Second State Examination (1973); Dr. jur., University of Bonn (1973); Habilitation, venia legendi for National Public and International Public Law (1980). 

Professional Experience: Assistant Professor, Institute of International Law, University of Bonn (1973–1982); Research fellow, Center for Oceans Law and Policy, University of Virginia (1977–1978); Professor of National Public and International Public Law, University of Mainz (1982); Professor, Chair of National Public and International Public Law and Director, Institute of International Law, University of Kiel (1982–1993); Vice-Rector, University of Kiel (1990–1993); Judge at the Courts of Appeal for Administrative Matters, Lüneburg and Schleswig (1986–1993); Director, Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg (1993–2013); Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Heidelberg (1993–2013); Vice-President, German Research Foundation (1996–2002); Honorary Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Hamburg (2002–present); Vice-President, Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (2002–2005); Honorary Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria; Member, Board of the Max Planck Foundation on International Peace and Rule of Law (2012-present).

Member: International Law Association (Board, German section, 1994–present); German delegation to: Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (1980–1982), Preparatory Commission for the International Seabed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (1982), 4th Special Consultative Meeting concerning Antarctic mineral resource activities (1983–1988); Chairman of the Legal Working Group of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings preparing an Annex to the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty on responsibility for environmental damage (1993–1998); UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (1990–2000, re-elected 1994 and 1998); Founding Member of the Humanities Section of the German Academy of Natural Sciences (Leopoldina) (2003-present); Board of Trustees of the University of Hamburg (2003–2014); Chairman, Board of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Völkerrecht (German Society for International Law) (2005–2009); Institut de droit international (2007–present).

Publications: Author and editor of numerous books and articles on various issues of public international law, law of the sea, international environmental law, human rights, United Nations and the Antarctic, including: Internationalization of Common Spaces Outside National Jurisdiction: The Development of an International Administration for Antarctica, Outer Space, High Seas and Deep Seabed (in German), 1984; United Nations: law, policies, and practice, 1995; Enforcing Environmental Standards: Economic Mechanisms as Viable Means, 1996; The Right to a Fair Trial (together with D. Weissbrodt), 1997; “Means of Ensuring Compliance with and Enforcement of International Law”, Recueil des Cours de l’Académie de droit international de La Haye 272, 1998, 10 et seq.; International Law, vol. I/1, I/2, I/3 (in German; together with J. Delbrück), 2002; “Conflicts in International Environmental Law” (together with N. Matz), Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, vol. 164 (ed. together with A. von Bogdandy), 2003; “Equality and non-discrimination in national and international human rights protection” (ed.), Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, vol. 165, 2003; “Developments of International Law in Treaty Making”, Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, vol. 177 (ed. together with V. Röben), 2005; “The Role of International Dispute Settlement Institutions in the Delimitation of the Outer Continental Shelf“, Maritime Delimitation, R. Lagoni and D. Vignes (eds), 2006; WTO – Institutions and Dispute Settlement (ed. together with P.-T. Stoll, K. Kaiser), 2006; WTO – Technical Barriers and SPS Measures (ed. together with P.-T. Stoll, A. Seibert-Fohr), 2007; Law of the Sea, Environmental Law (ed. together with T. Ndiaye), 2007; “Legitimacy in International Law”, Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, vol. 194 (ed. with V. Röben), 2008; WTO – Trade in Services (ed. together with P.-T. Stoll, C. Feinäugle), 2008, “Freedom of Navigation: New Challenges”, in: Freedom of Seas, Passage Rights and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention, M.H. Nordquist, T.B. Koh and J. Norton Moore (eds), 2009; WTO-Trade in Goods (ed. together with T. Stoll, H. Hestermeyer), 2010; Solidarity amongst States (ed. together with C. Kojima), 2010; Max Planck Encyclopedia for Public International Law, ten volumes, 2011; “Enforcing Community Interests Through International Dispute Settlement”, in: From Bilateralism to Community Interest: Essays in Honour of Bruno Simma, 2011; Water Law and Co-operation in the Euphrates-Tigris Region (ed. together with A. Kitaroglu, A. Kirschner and S. Mehring), 2013; “Ad hoc Chambers”, in: Governing Ocean Resources: New Challenges and Emerging Regimes,  A Tribute to Judge Choon-Ho Park, J.M. Van Dyke, S.P. Broder, S. Lee and J.-H. Paik (eds.), 2013; “Solidarity”, in: The Oxford Handbook of International Human Rights Law, D. Shelton (ed.), 2013; “The Use of Foreign Law in the Jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court of South Africa”, in: Africa and International Law: Reflections on the International Organization, Liber Amicorum Raymond Ranjeva, 2013; “Interventions in Proceedings Before International Courts and Tribunals”, in: International Courts and the Development of International Law: Essays in Honour of Tullio Treves, 2013.