Judge Helmut Türk

Member of the Tribunal since 1 October 2005, Vice-President of the Tribunal 2008-2011

Born: Linz, Austria, 24 April 1941.

Education: Dr. jur., University of Vienna (1963); College of Europe, Bruges (1963–1964).

Professional Experience: Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs: International Law Department (1965–1967, 1972–1978), Consulate General Hong Kong (1967–1972, Acting Consul General 1971–1972), Deputy Legal Adviser (1977–1978), Deputy Head of Mission, Embassy Bonn (1978–1982), Legal Adviser, Head of International Law Department (1982–1993), Deputy Secretary-General for Foreign Affairs (1991–1993), Ambassador, United States of America, Permanent Observer to the Organization of American States, Ambassador, Commonwealth of The Bahamas (1993–1999), Director-General, Office of the Austrian Federal President (1999–2004); Member, Austrian National Security Council (2002–2004); Ambassador, Holy See, Sovereign Military Order of Malta and Republic of San Marino (2005–2006).

Member: Advisor, Austrian Delegation to the UN General Assembly (1966–2004); Delegate, Legal Sub-Committee, UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (1973–1978); UN Seabed Committee (1973); Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (1974–1979, Deputy Head of Delegation 1976–1979); Agent of the Austrian Federal Government before the European Commission and the European Court of Human Rights (1982–1993); Head of Austrian delegation: UN Conference on the Succession of States in Respect of State Property, Archives and Debts (1983), CSCE-Meeting of Experts on Peaceful Settlement of Disputes (1984), 25th Extraordinary Session of the Assembly of ICAO (1984), UN Conference on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations (1986), International Conference on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation (1988), Preparatory Commission for the International Seabed Authority and for the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (1989–1994), Informal consultations of the UN Secretary-General on the Law of the Sea (1993–1994), Assembly of the International Seabed Authority (2003–2005); Panel of Arbitrators, International Energy Agency Dispute Settlement Centre (1986–1993); Committee of Legal Advisers of the Council of Europe on Public International Law (Vice-Chairman, 1988–1989; Chairman, 1990–1992); Permanent Court of Arbitration (1988–2008); Chairman, 6th (Legal) Committee at the 44th session of the UN General Assembly (1989); Austrian Representative, Council of the International Seabed Authority (1996–1998); President, Meeting of States Parties of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (1997–1998); Conciliator under Annex V and Arbitrator under Annex VII of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (2008).

Publications: "The Land-locked Countries and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea" (together with G. Hafner), in: Essays on the New Law of the Sea, 1985; "The European Ministerial Conference on Human Rights", in: Protecting Human Rights: The European Dimension, Studies in honour of Gerard J. Wiarda, 1988; "Die Europäische Menschenrechtskonvention im internationalen Vergleich", in: Österreich im Europarat, 1956–1986, Bilanz einer 30-jährigen Mitgliedschaft, 1988; "Die europäischen Neutralen und die Europäischen Gemeinschaften", in: Verantwortung in unserer Zeit – Festschrift für Dr. Rudolf Kirchschläger, 1990; "The Negotiation of a New Geneva-style Convention: a Government Lawyer's Perspective", in: Environmental Protection and the Law of War: A 'Fifth Geneva' Convention on the Protection of the Environment in Time of Armed Conflict, 1992; "Austrian-Soviet Round Table on the Protection of Human Rights", in: Schriften des Österreichischen Instituts für Menschenrechte, Vol. 4, 1992; "österreichs Bemühungen zur Abschaffung der Todesstrafe", in: „Menschenrechte als politischer Auftrag", "Focus", Band 7, Schriftenreihe des öVP-Parlamentsklubs, 1993; "Zur Errichtung eines Kriegsverbrechertribunals für das ehemalige Jugoslawien", in: Für Staat und Recht, Festschrift für Herbert Schambeck, 1994; "Neutralität und Mitgliedschaft bei den Vereinten Nationen", in: Völkerrecht zwischen normativem Anspruch und politischer Realität, Festschrift für Karl Zemanek zum 65. Geburtstag, 1994; Österreich im Spannungsfeld von Neutralität und kollektiver Sicherheit, Verlag Österreich, Juristische Schriftenreihe 109, 1997; "Die Wende 1989/90 und die Obsoleterklärung einiger Artikel des Staatsvertrags", in: Der österreichische Staatsvertrag 1955 – Internationale Strategie, rechtliche Relevanz, nationale Identität, 2005; “Die Militärischen und Luftfahrt-Bestimmungen des österreichischen Staatsvertrags und deren Obsoleszenz”, in: Staatsvertrag und immerwährende Neutralität österreichs: Eine juristische Analyse, 2007; “The Contribution of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to International Law”, Penn State International Law Review, Fall 2007 (26 Penn St. Int’l L. Rev. 289); “The Landlocked States and the Law of the Sea”, Revue belge de droit international, vol. XL, 2007-1; “Combating Terrorism at Sea – the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation”, University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 15 Special Issue Spring 2008; “Combating Terrorism at Sea – the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation”, in: Legal Challenges in Maritime Security, M.H. Nordquist, R. Wolfrum et al. (eds), 2008; “Montenegro”, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law Online (http://www.mpepil.com/), 2008; “The Contribution of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to International Law”, in: Maritime Boundary Disputes, Settlement Processes, and the Law of the Sea (Publications on Ocean Development), S.-Y. Hong and J.M. Van Dyke (eds), 2009; “La protección de las aguas marinas. La función del Tribunal Internacional para el Derecho del Mar”, in: La cuestión ecológica: La vida del hombre en el mundo,  Nunciatura Apostólica en España (Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos), 2009; “Zwölf Jahre Internationaler Seegerichtshof”, in: Die Welt im Spannungsfeld zwischen Regionalisierung und Globalisierung (Festschrift für Heribert Franz Köck), P. Fischer, M.M. Karollus and S. Stadlmeier (eds), 2009; “Trieste”, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law Online (http://www.mpepil.com/), 2009; “The idea of the common heritage of mankind”, in: Serving the Rule of International Maritime Law, Essays in honour of Professor David Joseph Attard, N.A. Martinez Guttierrez (ed.), 2009; “The Resurgence of Piracy: A Phenomenon of Modern Times”, University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 17, Issue I, 2009; “The Waning Freedom of the Seas”, in: L'évolution et l'état actuel du droit international de la mer, Mélanges de droit de la mer offerts à Daniel Vignes, R. Casado Raigón, G. Cataldi (ed.), Bruylant, Bruxelles, 2009; “Der Internationale Seegerichtshof – Ein Unbekanntes Wesen?”, Nova & Varia 2/2009, Manz Crossmedia, Vienna, 2009; “The contribution of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to international law”, in: The International Legal Regime of Areas beyond National Jurisdiction: Current and Future Developments, Alex G. Oude Elferink and Erik J. Molenaar (eds.), Leiden, 2010; “Maritime Protection and Violence at Sea”, in: Sûreté maritime et violence en mer / Maritime Security and Violence at Sea, José Manuel Sobrino Heredia (ed.), Bruylant/Université de Bruxelles, 2011; “Advisory Opinions and the Law of the Sea”, in: The Challenges of Contemporary International Law and International Relations – Liber Amicorum Dr. Ernest Petrič, M. Pogačnik et al. (ed.), European Law Faculty of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, 2011; “Water in the Contemporary World”, in: Coexistence, Cooperation and Solidarity: Liber Amicorum Rüdiger Wolfrum, Holger P. Hestermeyer, Doris König, Nele Matz-Lück et al. (eds.), Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden, 2011; “Reflections on the Contemporary Law of the Sea”, Publications on Ocean Development, Vol. 71, Vaughan Lowe and Robin Churchill (eds.), Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden/Boston, 2012; “The Work of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea”, in: Ocean Yearbook 26, Dalhousie University, Aldo Chircop, Scott Coffen-Smout and Moira McConnell (eds.), Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden/Boston, 2012; “The Arctic and the Modern Law of the Sea”, in: Governing Ocean Resources: New Challenges and Emerging Regimes, A Tribute to Judge Choon-Ho Park, J.M. Van Dyke, S.P. Broder, S. Lee and J.-H. Paik (eds.), Martinus Nijhoff, 2013; “Piracy and the Law of the Sea”, in: Regions, Institutions, and Law of the Sea, Studies in Ocean Governance, H.N. Scheiber, J.-H. Paik (eds.), Martinus Nijhoff, 2013.